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浅析雅思议论文的论证方法介绍

中国雅思网 发表时间:2014年10月30日

  浅析雅思议论文的论证方法:一方面,对于绝大多

  一.对比论证

  对比论证的方法,主要适用于考题中出现两个对象比较的情况。从操作性上看,对比论证较为方便。论证对比的角度,只需从考题中的两个对象入手即可。

  1. 常见表达方式

  ① 关联词

  In contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, just as, similarly

  ② 句型

  Compared with...,...

  While/whereas...,...

  ③ 形容词的比较级

  在不同的考题中,如果出现两个对象的比较,一般在对比论证中都会有一些形容词的比较级出现。考生应根据不同的话题选择不同的词汇。

  2. 范例评析

  剑桥雅思考试全真试题8 Test 2

  题目:Some people think that parents should teach children how to be goodmembers of society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learnthis. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  考官范文选段:

  However, learning to understand and share the value system of a wholesociety cannot be achieved just in the home. Once a child goes to school, theyare entering a wider community where teachers and peers will have just as muchinfluence as their parents do at home. At school, children will experienceworking and living with people from whole variety of backgrounds for the widersociety. This experience should teach them how to cooperate with each other andhow to contribute to the life of their community.

  点评:这道题的主题为“孩子社会意识的教育与培养是靠家庭还是靠学校”。考官在论证学校的教育义务时,着重强调了:相比较家庭,“teachers andpeers will have just as much influence as their parents do athome”。学校中的老师和同学对孩子社会意识的培养有相同的影响力。而且,在学校相比较在家,“experience working and living withpeople from whole variety of backgrounds for the widersociety”。孩子接触的世界更大,人的类型更多。正所谓,公正合理两方面,对比论证出真知。

  二.引用论证

  引用论证,是最为考验考生知识储备的一种论证方法。引用论证,一般引用名人名言﹑权威数据,研究成果﹑学术刊物,它能够增加论证的可信度和权威性。

  但是,这种论证方法最容易被考生误用或滥用,很多考生没有知识储备就自己捏造一些名言或数据。最夸张的是有时所谓“名言”却出现语法错误,所谓“权威数据”却不合情理甚至荒谬。

  因此,建议考生们在备考时适当准备几句名言警句,如果能在考试中用上最好,如果不能那就使用前面介绍的几种论证方法。但是,对于知识面较广,语言水平较高的考生,完全可以使用引用论证,这样不仅能增强论证的权威感也能展现自己的优势。

  1. 常见表达方式

  According to a recent study, according to a recent article published in..., according to a recent survey conducted by...

  A recent study/survey found that...

  A recent opinion poll revealed that ...

  2. 范例评析

  剑桥雅思考试全真试题5 Test4

  题目: Research indicates that the characteristics we are born with have muchmore influence on our personality and development than any experiences we mayhave in our life. Which do you consider to be the major influence?

  考官范文选段:

  Today the way we consider human psychology and mental development isheavily influenced by the genetic sciences. Research, relating to identicaltwins, has highlighted how significant inherited characteristics can be for anindividual's life.

  点评:这道题的主题是“先天还是后天决定人的性格和发展”,考官的这段论证主要是证明先天的影响更大些,引用了一个有关双胞胎的研究。对研究发现的引用使得第一句的论点没有那么苍白无力。但是,通过翻看剑桥系列丛书,不难发现引用论证在考官的范文中的使用可以用“基本罕见”来形容。正所谓,引用论证用得少,粗制滥造没必要。

  三.总结论证

  实际上,总结论证是解决论证过程中“无话可说”的应急策略。它的位置一定是放在正文段的最后一句,总结整个段落的内容。虽然这种方法有一定作用,但并不建议考生多用,一篇文章用一次就足以了,用多了就会产生凑字数的嫌疑。

  1. 常见表达方式

  It can be concluded that ...

  It is little wondering that...

  There is no exaggeration that ...

  It is logical to conclude that ...

  It is no exaggeration to say that ...

  2. 范例评析

  剑桥雅思考试全真试题6 Test B

  题目: Using a computer every day can have more negative than positive effectson young children. Do you agree or disagree?

  考官范文选段:

  In spite of this, the obvious benefits of computer skills for youngchildren cannot be denied. Their adult world will be changing constantly interms of technology and the Internet is the key to all the knowledge andinformation available in the world today. Therefore, it is important thatchildren learn at an early age to use the equipment enthusiastically and withconfidence as they will need these skills throughout their studies and workinglives.

  点评:这道考题要求考生对“孩子每天使用电脑是否利大于弊”展开讨论。考官在指出使用电脑能够帮助孩子了解更多知识,适应未来成人社会的生活后,在最后一句把前文的话换了种句型又说了一遍。“Therefore,it is important that children learn at an early age to use the equipmententhusiastically and with confidence as they will need these skills throughouttheir studies and working lives.”由此可见,即使是考官在需要强调或总结的时候,也会对段落小结一下。正所谓,总结论证放心用,应急时候是帮手。

  以上便是小编为大家介绍的浅析雅思议论文的论证方法,议论文的论证方法各有千秋。要想正确使用,就必须对各种论证方法的作用、适用范围、使用方法熟练掌握。在掌握论证方法后,再着手润色语言的表达,长此以往,坚持不懈,雅思写作高分指日可待,最后,祝大家考出好成绩!