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雅思听力选择题:谨慎对待迷惑信息

中国雅思网 发表时间:2016年12月30日
选择题是雅思听力考试的经典题型,虽然出现的比例略低于填空题,但每次考试都会有10-15题。选择题的难度其实大于填空题,因为选项会用大量的同义词或词组替换原文中与答案有关的词,而非正确答案的选项中会有大量陷阱。并且因为读题量大,很多考生无法在规定的时间读完题目,更谈不上理解分析,最后只能通过听音中抓到的片言只语选择,导致错误较多。很多考上抱怨做听力选择题好比雾里看花,那么如何拨开迷雾、看到真相呢?我们来一起分析一下选择题的特点与解题方法。

 选择题分单选题和多选题。单选题的特点是:

1. 题干、选项通常都较长,阅读量大,需要考生较快的阅读速度;

2. 选项中干扰信息多,正确答案通常以间接信息出现。

单选题的解题思路为:

1. 第一遍读题快速浏览所有题干,划出路标词;

2. 第二遍读题仔细阅读选项,比较选项的异同,并划出选项中的核心词汇,即此选项的细节特点,如否定、比较级或最高级、强调词(如only,all,must,always,too等)、及修饰限定的形容词或副词;

否定词如:如don’t,didn’t,haven’t,have no,without,lack,there’s no等。如选项中出现这些词,听音时注意原文如有否定词或否定形式出现,此选项为正确选项。

例题解析1:(Cambridge 4 Test 2 Section 2 Question 13)

The international students find the stress especially difficult to deal with because

A. they lack the support from family or friends.

B. they don’t have time to make friends.

C. they find it difficult to socialize.

解析:在阅读选项时,应注意A选项的lack为否定词汇,即“没有朋友、家人的支持”;B选项也有否定,“没有时间”。在听音时就应注意目标,原文是否有否定,是没有“支持”,还是没有“时间”。录音材料在重读without一词时,考生应注意与本题有关,之后说“social network”,“you know, social contact, family, friends...”。通过否定词without及之后的词确定A选项为答案。(录音:And of course you should cope with all this without your usual social network. You know, the social contact, family and friends that you can rely on for help. )

比较级或最高级在选项中出现如选项They have to study harder than they did at school,在听音时一定注意原文是否有比较级出现,如只听到study very hard,没有比较,此选项为干扰项。

修饰限定的形容词或副词也是读选项的关键之一。 例题解析2:(Cambridge 4 Test 4 Section 2 Question 13)

The walks offered by Travellite

A. cater for a range of walking abilities.

B. are planned by guides from the local area.

C. are for people with good fitness levels.

解析:A选项有修饰词a range of,C选项有修饰词good,在读选项时,应重点将这些词标注,而不是其后的名词。选项C的fitness levels是干扰的重点,与录音原文文字一致,但起限定作用的形容词good与录音原文中all含义不一致,所以C是错选。正确选项为A选项,a range of指的就是录音原文中的all。(录音:Each day we offer three separate walks catering for all skills and fitness levels.)

3. 听到题干的路标词后,抓住句子的核心词,快速与选项进行对照。如果选项中的核心词汇(即上一点提到的细节词汇)在原文没有对应,此选项往往为干扰项;

4. 有些选项构成明显的对比,往往可以通过它们之间的差异,缩小听音范围。

例题解析3:(Cambridge 5Test 3 Section 2 Question 20)

With regard to their English, the speaker advises that students to

A. tell their lecturers if they have problems understanding.

B. have private English lessons when they arrive.

C. practice their spoken English before they arrive.

解析:B、C选项存在明显对比,一个是到英国后加强英语(精品课),一个是来英国前加强英语;关键词分别划在when和before, 来进行区分,同时可以先排除A。(录音:Having said that though, I’m afraid the lecturers will make little or no allowance for the presence of non-native speakers in the audience, so anything you can do to improve your spoken English, even beyond the pretty high level most of you have already reached will make your stay with us that bit more fun for you.Some extra practice before you arrive is worth more than, for example, private lessons afterwards when you won’t really have time.)

多选题的特点:

1. 选项通常较长,需要考生快速、准确的阅读能力;

2. 正确答案的数量在题目中有规定,考生要注意题干要求。

解题思路:

1. 分析选项的方法与单选题相同;

2. 比较选项,找出结构相似细节不同的选项,这样的选项中往往会有一个是答案;

3. 选项较简单的,录音和选项会有同义替换,不能按照所听即所得的原则选择。

例题解析4(Cambridge 6, Test 4, Section 3)

Questions 28-30

Which THREE topics do this term’s study skills workshops cover?

A. An introduction to the Internet

B. How to carry out research for a dissertation

C. Making good use of the whole range of library services

D. Planning a dissertation

E. Standard requirements when writing a dissertation

F. Using the Internet when doing research

G. What books and technical resources are available in the library

经过分析我们发现,选项A,F都提及Internet,可以归为一类;选项B,D,E都与Dissertation有关,归为第二类;选项C,G中都有Library,归为第三类。这样我们就根据一定的特点把选项与干扰项进行了归类,根据类似选项形成互相干扰并且容易得出正确答案的原则,我们可以大胆的预测三类中各出一个正确答案,正好组成此题的最终答案。如此这般的抽丝剥茧能使我们把零零散散的七个选项归为有特点的三大类,从视觉上感觉已经轻松多了,感觉并不是面对七个毫无关联的选项,而是在三类中选三个答案。接下来需要做的就是排除同类中的唯一或者最多不超过两个干扰项,写下正确答案。