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介词误用很可怕 雅思小作文最常见错词举例

中国雅思网 发表时间:2017年1月4日
雅思小作文因为比较模式化,相对来说用错词的情况也少一些。其实,小作文中比较集中的错误在“比较与对比”搞不清楚,所以出现 ‘compare’与 ‘contrast’ 的使用错误,这里我们详细说一下。

 一、compare与contrast的误用

我们先从两者的定义入手来看两者的区别。Compare的定义为:to examine people or things to see how they are similar or different. Contrast的定义为:to compare two or more things to show the difference between them. 由定义不难看出前者侧重于找到两个或多个事物的异同,而后者则侧重于它们的不同。

看个例句:

It is interesting to compare their situations to ours./It is interesting to contrast their situations to ours.

前一句翻译为:对比一下我们的情况与他们的情况会很有趣。

后一句的翻译为:我们的情况与他们的情况有很大的不同,这很有趣。

再看一个引自OXFORD ADBANCED LEARNER’S DICTIONARY的例子:

There is an obvious contrast between the culture of East and West.

The company lost $7 million in contrast to a profit of $6.2 million a year earlier.

When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast.

不难发现,Compare 翻译为“ 与。。。相比”而contrast可译为“明显不同的是。。。”,切记这种翻译方式就不会用错彼此了。

二、介词使用错误

1、普通介词的误用

一般表现为固定搭配错误,如常把provide sb with sth用成provide sb sth; be satisfied with用成be satisfied for等等,虽然这样的错误看似无伤大雅,但在考官眼里就是影响顺畅阅读的,当然会影响最终成绩。解决的办法简单而古老:把常见的固定搭配牢记于心,问题自然就解决了。

 2、“to”作为介词的误用

“to”最常见的用法是以动词不定式符号的形式出现的,所以同学们也已经习惯了 “to do”的固定搭配。对于一些如walk to me, to the left等介词to表方向等常见用法一般也不会出现错误。但是对于与动词搭配的介词to就会经常犯错:

如:

More and more students have taken to depend on their parents to make decision for them.

这里的 ‘take to’ means ‘to begin to do sth as a habit’ 其中 ‘to’为介词,所以后面只能接名词或相当于名词的词,如动名词。所以黑体处应改为“depending on”。“take to”的另一个常用用法也需要牢记:

He hasn’t taken to his new school. (这里‘take to’ means ‘to start liking sb or sth’)

Prefer A to B中的 “to”也是介词,会有 prefer doing sth to doing sth/ prefer sth to sth else, 这里提醒您,“prefer to do sth rather than do sth”中的“to”可是真正的不定式符号。

类似的常用用法请同学们牢记:

Be used to doing

Be accustomed to doing

See to doing

Adapt to doing

Adjust to doing

prefer doing sth. to doing sth.