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用项目管理的方法来攻克雅思大作文的四大步骤

中国雅思网 发表时间:2017年6月18日

我们的步骤是:

1.节点描述(作文审题)

2.节点问题点、难点、关键点(文章的逻辑安排)

3. 节点操作规范、标准(词汇及语法的规范)

4. 问题的预防、处理计划或措施(考前的记忆练习)

下面,我们用老年人这个话题来示范一下这四个步骤的具体运用

第一步:节点描述(作文审题)

雅思写作题目十一年内与老年人直接相关的真题出现过9次,基本上是每年必出的常规话题之一。值得一提的是,2013年作文题中还没有直接出现老年人这个词眼,只提到了人们要不要为今后退休生活存钱。

Recently the proportion of older people has increased. Do you think it will make positive or negative effect on society? 20060211,20111008,20120310

老龄化会有哪些影响?

Some people believe that in order to give opportunities to new generations, companies should encourage high level employees who are older than 55 to retire. Do you agree or disagree? Why? 030712, 030809, 20051029

是否要鼓励老人早点退休以达到为年轻人留出更多机会的目的?

Today, in many countries, there is insufficient respect to old people. What are the reasons? What problems it might cause? 20060708

当今社会对老年人不够尊重的原因和可能带来的问题是哪些?

Nowadays, high-technologies such as mobile phones and internet are rarely used by old people. How should these technologies be useful to old people? How to encourage old people to use the technologies? 20080628

如何使高科技产品对老年人更有帮助?如何鼓励老年人使用这些科技?

Some people say that it is the responsibility of individuals to save money for their own care after they retire. To what extent do you agree or disagree? 20070825

谁来为老年人的退休生活买单?

Saving money is a good habit for an individual after retirement. Do you agree or disagree? 20130606

人们要不要为退休后生活存钱?

第二步:节点问题点、难点、关键点(文章的逻辑安排)

英美虽然不存在有文化部这个部门,但实际上的确存在着一种主旋律的调调,比如说会稍显刻意地强调对于弱势群体的关注,而老人、小孩、妇女、穷人、少数民族、移民[微博]等群体就是我们通常而言比较需要被关注到的弱势人群。雅思作文每年都会出现三次左右有关弱势群体的考题。另外在其他题目写作的时候,从这些群体的立场出发思考问题,也不妨为我们分类讨论的一种思路和角度,体现出咱们的人性关怀。所以这类问题在段落安排上尽量辩证去分析,避免一边倒的说法。

第三步:节点操作规范、标准(词汇及语法的规范)

说到老年人的表达,大家可以尽量避免一开始就出现old people, old folks这样的表达,第一个原因是这样比较偏口语化,第二个原因是咱们这样说有点offensive,雅思写作用语始终应该注意委婉度与高级度。所以我们建议先把elderly, pensioner, seniorcitizen, the aged这些表达用出来。而老年人通常会面对到的问题一般而言是体能不足(physical inadequacies),不能快速接受新事物(fail to adopt innovations),可能会被强制退休(compulsory retirement)生活窘迫(life distress)年龄歧视(age discrimination)缺少专业的护理(lackof professional care givers)等等问题。

下面的句子是关于老年人话题非常漂亮的原汁原味表达,大家可以试试套用下加粗的句型和词伙(地道搭配)。咱们要记住用词用句的原则:地道自然的表达远远优过冗繁堆砌。信息密度大的简单句也是高分句,不知所云的复杂句即是低分句!

Against the background of the expected population ageing in the EU and most of its Member States, it is therefore obvious that the actual retirement age must be raised substantially。

欧洲的未来老龄化趋势以及它的大多数同胞国的情况都昭示着它的实际退休年龄是时候大幅提高了

Although the effects of early retirement were presented a long time as a win-win situation(availabilityof jobs for the young; more leisure time for elder people; lower unemployment figures for the government), they turned out to be an expensive fallacy。

虽然早退休方案在很长一段时间都被认为是一个双赢方案,但最后这被证明是一个昂贵的错误。

In addition it is worth to reconsider the seniority principle (people earn more the older they get or the longer they are with one employer) as it may create obstacles for the hiring or continued employment of older workers。

而且非常有必要去重新考虑老年法则(人们工作的时间越长在一个老板底下工作时间越长,薪水越高)因为这可能会对他们再就业的制造障碍。

Likewise regional disparities connected to population ageing and the development of the ‘silver economy’ need to be adequately addressed。

同样,和老龄化有关的地区差异以及“银发经济”的发展也应该好好考虑一下。

Furthermore, policies should be pursued which promote attitude changes towards elder people and support active ageing (life-long-learning, networking and activities of pensioner associations, possibilities for voluntary work on behalf of retirees, etc。)

还有,要实行政策来鼓励人们改变对老年者的看法,来支持老年生活的丰富化。

Care of older people demands not only the right staffing levels, but also specialist skills and expertise。

对老人的照料不仅需要合适的员工水平,还要专业的技能和知识。

Caring for the elderlyis not easy and places a strain on caregivers and their families, regardless of how willing they are to help。

照料老人不是一件易事,而且无论照顾者多么愿意提供帮助,这都会给他或他的家庭带来压力。

We must also account for an increasingly large proportion of global elderly, especially in developing nations, as continued pressure is put on limiting fertility and decreasing family size。

我们要考虑到日益增长的全球化老年人口,特别是在发展中国家,因为低生育及日益缩小的家庭规范带来持续的压力。

Because of the wide variety of elderly care found globally,as well as differentiating cultural perspectives on elderly citizens, the subject cannot be limited to any one practice。

因为全球有不同的老年人照顾需求,背景观点也都不一样,这个问题不仅仅局限一隅。

There is much that can be done to improve provision for older people but it starts by accepting it is not basic or simple. The skills and knowledge of the nursing workforce needs to reflect the patient population。

对老人的照顾有很大的改善空间,前提要认识到这不简单。护理人员的技能和知识要能匹配到要照顾到的人数。

第四步:问题的预防、处理计划或措施(考前准备)

在备考期间,烤鸭们至少要看近两年内出现过的所有写作题目(其实连100道都不到),并不需要大家把所有的题目都写一次。烤鸭们要做的就是把相似题目中最有代表性一道练练笔就好,把前面三步当中的积累尽量运用到250字的作文当中,起到举一反三的作用。

关于老年人话题出现频率最高,最有代表性的一道真题就是下面这道

It is reported that there will be higher proportion of older people than young people in the future in some countries. Do you think it is a positive or negative development?

各们烤鸭们可以根据我们给出的大纲,体会一下节点安排,自行完成一篇完整大作文

Task response

1.划出关键词

Higher proportion ofolder people

2.题型归类:Argument利弊衡量

Coherence and cohesion全文布局,段落安排

首段:背景+争议焦点+引入下文

二段:好处的展开

三段:坏处的展开

尾段:总结中心句,重申立场

Lexical resources闪光词汇

Age boom

The prolonged average life span

Greater longevity

Grammatical range and accuracy 漂亮的语法

The most striking one is that the average life span will be prolonged, for the progress of medical treatment and improvement of living condition makes more people timely heal the diseases and better keep fit。

For another, aging of population causes a relative decrease in effective working force because population aging could impose great pressure on the structure of work force。

For a start, great efforts are surely necessary to promote the economic development; only in this way can the large proportion of the public fund be put into the social network focusing on the elderly。

总而言之,大家可以把准备屠鸭的过程看成是一项能大家带来成就感的项目管理。希望各位烤鸭能有条不紊地完成对各个写作话题类别的节点控制。兵来将挡,水来土淹;知己知彼,百战不殆!祝大家屠鸭成功!