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雅思阅读高分诀窍:巧避同义陷阱

中国雅思网 发表时间:2018年3月7日

  在雅思四门考试中,经常会大量利用的同义转换来考察学生词汇量和综合理解能力,尤其在阅读考试中更是屡见不鲜。如果说考生在口语和写作中还能有一定程度选择的话,那么阅读中考生是全然没有任何选择的。对于同义转换的准确到位的理解是和考生的综合理解能力有着千丝万缕的联系的。本文中,将就雅思阅读中出现的同义转换形式及在解题过程中的作用进行探讨。

  一、词的转换

  词的转换一般指的是只涉及单个单词的转换。单个单词的转换包括词性转换及同义词转换。其中词性转换是相对简单的一种,词汇量可观的考生自然可以游刃有余,轻松应对;即便不认识被转换了的单词的考生,也可以通过词根词缀以及上下文进行猜测。例如:

  Example 1. Q24/Test 2/Cambridge V (Matching):

  24、One of the brain’s most difficult tasks is to

  A.react t their own thoughts

  B.helped create language in humans

  C.respond instantly to whatever is happening

  题干中的核心信息 most difficult 应该在读题的过程中被考生捕捉到,在定位时应充分考虑到被代换的可能性;另外备考时训练充分有素的考生还会考虑到句子结构的整体顺序的不同。这样,当定位到原文的对应信息句:

  Making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment is an extremely demanding job for the brain, animal or human.

  考生应该能够敏锐地发现extremely demanding 是 most difficult 的代换,由此确定该句所表达的意思是正确答案,在list 中搜寻正确的选项时,句子中的内容被再一次代换,其中原文中rapid emotional assessment of the events 被代换为 respond instantly to whatever is happening, 至此,答案为C.

  Example 2. Q24/Test 1/Cambridge V (T/F/NG):

  Q24、Some people may believe that the teacher- subjects’ behaviour could be explained as a positive survival mechanism,

  该题如果定位准确,整体的难度还是不高的。可以看出句中positive 和survival是关键词,由句中出现的survival mechanism可判断为是从生物角度来谈论的,又因为原文的F段首句:One’s first inclination might be to argue that there are must be some sort of built-in animal aggression instinct that … 中提到了相关内容,所以定位到该段。迅速扫描,搜寻和两个关键词对应的信息,除了在该段第六行出现了原词重现的survival, 还在上一行出现了advantageous, 显然是positive 的代换。由于原文跟题目中的信息吻合,所以答案是TRUE.

  二、词组的转换

  词组的转换一般情况下是同义词转换的一个衍生。当一个词无法用另一个同义词到位地解释时,可能会出现用词组解释的情况。另外如果本身就是词组的形式,那么通常来讲还是会用词组的形式进行解释。如Text 4/Q36/Cambridge V题目中的表述是 birds in temperate climates, 而原文对应的描述是temperate-zone birds. 这种情况在T/F/NG当中也有体现。绝大多数选TRUE的情况,原文和题目一定会经过同义转换,如:

  Example 1:

  原文:Computers are gaining in popularity, despite their cost.

  题目:Computers are more popular than they used to be.

  原文当中的gaining in popularity题目中用more popular than they used to be作为替换。两者在意思上属于完全一致的同义转换,因此答案为TRUE。

  答案是FALSE的题目也可以通过同义转换的比对来进行判断,如:

  Example 2:

  原文:Biologically, a species becomes extinct when its last individual dies.

  题目:In biological terms, a species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.

  原文当中的biologically用题目的in biological terms作为替换。Become则由is said to be作为替换。但是原文当中的die在题目中变成了exist, 直接相反的意思。介于最后这一处的转换与原文信息不符,可以判断出此题答案是FALSE.

  三、句子的转换

  考试中涉及到的句子转换一般是指句子结构或语态的转换或者是对原文的概括,即用一两句话对于原文的多句话进行一个总结概括。但还有一种形式是题目中出现的某个单词在原文中以句子或句子的一部分进行了代换。下文中将就两种情况分别举例说明。

  Example 1:

  原文:The Internet has often been criticized by the international society as a newly-emerging dangerous tool in the hands of terrorists.

  题目:The international society has often criticized the Internet because it is not safe.

  原文的被动语态在题目当中变成了主动的语态。但是因为题目缺少了条件状语in the hands of terrorists, 所以题目的正确答案为NOT GIVEN。

  句子转换的另一种形式是对原文的总结概括。Summary或者T/F/NG题目当中,有时候会出现原文和句子之间是总结概括关系。

  Example 2:

  原文:It has been proved that a rapid response leads to a great likelihood of arrest only if it is 1-2 minutes after a call is received by police. When the response time increases to 3-4 minutes, the likelihood of an arrest is substantially reduced.

  题目:A delay of 1-2 minutes in response may have substantial influence on whether or not a suspected criminal is caught.

  这道题目源自一篇讲反应速度的文章。原文中的两句话讲述的内容为,如果警察在接到电话后的1-2分钟反应,抓住罪犯的可能性就非常大;如果3-4分钟反应,拘捕的可能性就会降低。这样的意思在题目当中被概括为一句话,即延后反应一到两分钟会降低抓住罪犯的可能性。

  Example 3:

  Q4/Test 1/Cambridge V (T/F/NG):

  4、The fact that children’s ideas about science form part of a larger framework of ideas means that it is easier to change them.

  该句的定位由于符合顺序原则,许多同学还是能轻松定位到第二段,但是接下来确认信息的过程就让一些综合阅读理解能力相对薄弱的同学不能从容应对,因为对于larger的同义代换不能识别从而导致错误答案。

  事实上,单词large被原文中不止一个单词替换,综合在一起,成就了larger的意思:

  These misconceptions do not remain isolated but become incorporated into a multifaceted, but organised, conceptual framework, making it and … …

  虽然没有确切的某个单词表达了larger 的意思,但multifaceted, but organised, conceptual三个词合起来则充分准确地表达了该意思,不能不称之为巧妙。

  Example 4:

  Q26/Test 1/Cambridge IV (Short Answer):

  26、Which of the senses is best developed in cetaceans?

  句中best developed 显然是关键词,但是无论按照顺序原则还是其他方法都很难准确定位到某个句子,因为完全被代换成了句子。在最后一段的首句中:

  Although the senses of taste and smell appear to have deteriorated, and vision in water appears to be uncertain, such weaknesses are more than compensated for by cetaceans’ well-developed acoustic sense.

  虽然看上去well-developed可以充当题目中best developed的同义代换,但笔者认为并非如此,二者在表达的程度上是有差异的,如何做出准确的判断还是有赖于对上述整个句子的理解,并且在和其他的感官发育情况做了对比之后,情况就更加清晰,答案是acoustic sense.

  诚然,辨识出统一代换似乎能节约时间,提高效率,但考生们还是要和综合实力相结合,才能相辅相成,又快又准地完成解题过程。