23. Modern cargo-handling methods have had asignificant effect on 23____as the business of moving freight around the worldbecomes increasingly streamlined.
原文：Thanks to technological advances such aslightweight components, manufactured goods themselves have tended to becomelighter and less bulky. As a result, less transportation is required for everydollar's worth of imports or exports ; To see how this influences trade,consider the business of making disk drives for computers.
同义替换：have had a significant effect on = influences
24. Manufacturers of computers, for instance,are able to import 24____from overseas, rather than having to rely on a localsupplier.
原文：Computer manufactures in Japan or Texas willnot face hugely bigger freight bills if they import drives from Singaporerather than purchasing them on the domestic market.
同义替换：local supplier = domestic market ; components= drives
25. The introduction of 25____has meant thatbulk cargo can be safely and efficiently moved over long distances.
答案：C container ships
原文：But, behind the scenes, a series of technological innovations knownbroadly as containerization and intermodal transportation has led to swiftproductivity improvements in cargo-handing.
同义替换：can be safely and efficiently moved = swiftproductivity improvements in cargo-handing ; container ships = containerizationand intermodal transportation
26. While international shipping is nowefficient, there is still a need for governments to reduce 26____in order tofree up the domestic cargo sector.
原文：The shipping container transformed oceanshipping into a highly efficient, intensely competitive business. But gettingthe cargo to and from me dock was a different story. ; National governments, byand large, kept a much firmer hand on truck and railroad tariffs than oncharges for ocean freight.
同义替换：there is still a need = But getting the cargoto and from me dock was a different story
Research carried out by scientists in theUnited States has shown that the proportion of people over 65 suffering fromthe most common age-related medical problems is 14____and that the speed ofthis change is 15____
原文：Researchers, now analysing the results ofdata gathered in 1994, say arthritis, high blood pressure and circulationproblems - the major medical complaints in this age group - are troubling asmaller proportion every year.
同义替换：age-related medical problems = arthritis,high blood pressure and circulation problems , medical complaints ; common = major ; falling = smaller
原文：And the data confirms that the rate at whichthese diseases are declining continues to accelerate.
同义替换：speed = the rate ; this change = thesediseases are declining ; increasing = accelerate
16. It also seems that these diseases areaffecting people 16 ____ in life than they did in the past.
原文：He says the problems doctors accepted as normal in a 65-year-old in1982 are often not appearing until people are 70 or 75.
同义替换：affecting = appearing ; later in life =65-year-old, 70 or 75 ; in the past =1982
This is largely due to developments in 17____butother factors such as improved 18____may also be playing a part. Increases insome other illnesses may be due to changes in personal habits and to 19____
原文：Clearly, certain diseases are beating aretreat in the face of medical advances.
同义替换：developments in medicine = medical advances
原文：But there may be other contributing factorsImprovements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentiethcentury
同义替换：improved = Improvements in ; playing a part =contributing
原文：An increase in some cancers and bronchitis may reflect changing smokinghabits and poorer air quality, say the researchers. 'These may be subtleinfluences’ says Manton, 'but our subjects have been exposed to worse and worsepollution for over 60 years. It's not surprising we see some effect.'
同义替换：other illnesses = cancers and bronchitis ;due to = reflect ; personal habits = smoking habits
20. The research establishes a link betweenlevels of 20____ and life expectancy
原文：One interesting correlation Manton uncoveredis that better educated people are likely to live longer.
同义替换：link = correlation ; education and lifeexpectancy = better educated people are likely to live longer ; life expectancy= live
It also shows that there has been aconsiderable reduction in the number of elderly people who are 21____whichmeans that the 22____ involved in supporting this section of the population maybe less than previously predicted.
原文：That represents a significant drop in the numberof disabled old people in population.
同义替换：considerable = significant ; reduction = drop; elderly people who are disabled = disabled old people
原文：According to Manton, slowing the trend hassaved the United States government's Medicare system more than $200 billion,suggesting that the greying of America's population may prove less of afinancial burden than expected.
同义替换：the cost = a financial burden ; previouslypredicted = expected
14. The Nicaraguan National Literacy Crusadeaimed to teach large numbers of illiterate 14____to read and write.
答案：B men and women
原文： By 1985,about 300.000 illiterate adults fromall over the country, many of whom had never attended primary school, hadlearnt now to read, write and use numbers
同义替换：large numbers of = many ; illiterate = whomhad never attended primary school ; men and women = adults
15. Public health experts have known for manyyears that there is a connection between child health and 15____
答案：F maternal literacy
原文：The investigators' findings were striking. Inthe late 1970s, the infant mortality rate for the children of illiteratemothers was around 110 deaths per thousand live births. At this point in theirlives, those mothers who later went on to learn to read had a similar level ofchild mortality (105/1000). For women educated in primary school, however, theinfant mortality rate was significantly lower, at 80 per thousand.
同义替换：child health = infant mortality rate for thechildren ,child mortality ; maternalliteracy = illiterate mothers, mothers who later went on to learn to read ,women educated in primary school
16. This question has been investigated by16____
答案：C an international research team
原文：During this period, researchers from theLiverpool School of Tropical Medicine, the Central American Institute of Healthin Nicaragua, the National Autonomous University of Nicaragua and the CostaRican Institute of Health interviewed nearly 3.000 women
同义替换：investigated = interviewed
As a result, factors such as 17____andattitudes to children have been eliminated, and it has been shown that 18____canin itself improve infant health and survival.
17. 答案：J family wealth
原文：Most literate women learnt to read in primaryschool, and the fact that a woman has had an education may simply indicate herfamily's wealth or that it values its children more highly. Now a long termstudy carried out in Nicaragua has eliminated these factors.
同义替换：attitudes to children = it values itschildren more highly ; factors…. have been eliminated = has eliminated thesefactors
18.答案：F maternal literacy
原文：Now a long term study carried out inNicaragua has eliminated these factors by showing that teaching reading to pooradult women, who would otherwise have remained illiterate, has a direct effecton their children's health and survival.
同义替换：maternal literacy = teaching reading to pooradult women ; improve = has a direct effect on ; infant = children