4. In 1764 DrJohnson accepted the contract to produce a dictionary. Having rented a garret,he took on a number of4______
答案: clerks / copying clerks
原文：James Boswell, his biographer, described the garret where Johnsonworked as 'fitted up like a counting house' with a long desk running down themiddle at which the copying clerks would work standing up.
5. who stood at along central desk. Johnson did not have a 5______available to him, buteventually produced definitions of in excess of 40,000 words written down in 80large notebooks.
原文：The work was immense: filling about eighty large note- books (andwithout a library to hand), Johnson wrote the definitions of over 40,000words...
同义替换：did not have = without ; produced = wrote ;in excess of = over
6. According to hisbiographer, James Boswell, Johnson's principal achievement was to bring 6_____tothe English language.
原文：It is the cornerstone of Standard English, an achievement which, inJames Boswell's words, "conferred stability on the language of hiscountry".
同义替换：According to his biographer, James Boswell =in James Boswell's words ; the English language = the language of his country
7. As a reward forhis hard work, he was granted a 7______by the king.
原文：The Dictionary, together with his other writing, made Johnson famousand so well esteemed that his friends were able to prevail upon King George IIIto offer him a pension.
同义替换：his hard work = The Dictionary, together withhis other writing ; was granted = offer
1. Some plastics behave in a similar way to 1______inthat they melt under heat and can be moulded into new forms.
原文：Some are 'thermoplastic', which means that,like candlewax, they melt when heated and can then be reshaped .
同义替换：similar = like ; under heat = when heated ;new forms = reshaped
2. Bakelite was unique because it was thefirst material to be both entirely 2______in origin, and thermosetting
原文：Bakelite had the distinction of being the first totally syntheticthermosetting plastic.
同义替换：unique = distinction
3. There were several reasons for theresearch into plastics in the nineteenth century, among them the great advancesthat had been made in the field of 3_______and the search for alternatives tonatural resources like ivory.
原文：The history of today's plastics begins withthe discovery of a series of semi-synthetic thermoplastic materials in themid-nineteenth century. The impetus behind the development of these earlyplastics was generated by a number of factors - immense technological progressin the domain of chemistry, coupled with wider cultural changes, and thepragmatic need to find acceptable substitutes for dwindling supplies of'luxury' materials such as tortoiseshell and ivory.
同义替换：several = a number of ; reasons = factors ;the great advances = immense technological progress ; field = domain ;alternatives = substitutes
28. In Europe,modern science emerged at the same time as the nation State. At first, thescientific language of choice remained 28_________
原文：Before that, Latin was regarded as the linguafranca for European intellectuals ; There were several reasons why originalscience continued to be written in Latin.
同义替换：choice = was regarded as
29. Sometimes thedesire to protect ideas seems to have been stronger than the desire tocommunicate them, particularly in the case of mathematicians and 29________
原文：Doctors clung the most keenly to Latin as an 'insider language'.
同义替换：particularly = keenly ; protect ideas =insider language
30&31. InBritain, moreover, scientists worried that English had neither the 30____northe 31 ______to express their ideas.
答案: technical vocabulary ;grammatical resources
原文：First, it lacked the necessary technical vocabulary. Second, it lackedthe grammatical resources required to represent the world in an objective andimpersonal way, and to discuss the
relations, such as cause and effect, that might hold between complex andhypothetical entities.
同义替换：had neither …nor … = First, it lacked …..Second, it lacked
32. This situation only changed after 1660when scientists associated with the 32______set about developing English.
答案: Royal Society
原文：Fortunately, several members of the RoyalSociety possessed an interest in language and became engaged in variouslinguistic projects.
同义替换：associated with = members of ; set about =became engaged in ; developing English = various linguistic projects
33. An early scientific journal fostered anew kind of writing based on short descriptions of specific experiments.Although English was then overtaken by 33________
原文：In the following century much of thismomentum was lost as German established itself as the leading European languageof science.
同义替换：was overtaken by = established itself as theleading
34. it developed again in the 19thcentury as a direct result of the 34_________
答案: industrial revolution
原文：However, in the 19th century scientific English again enjoyedsubstantial lexical growth as the industrial revolution created the need fornew technical vocabulary, and new, specialised, professional societies wereinstituted to promote and publish in the new disciplines.
同义替换：developed = enjoyed substantial lexicalgrowth ; as a direct result of = as