1. There arecurrently approximately 6,800 languages in the world. This great variety of languagescame about largely as a result of geographical 1_______
原文：Half the world's 6,800 languages are likely to vanish within twogenerations…….; Isolation breeds linguistic diversity: as a result, the worldis peppered with languages spoken by only a few people.
同义替换：great variety of languages = linguisticdiversity
2. But in today'sworld, factors such as government initiatives and 2____are contributing to a hugedecrease in the number of languages.
答案: economic globalisation /globalization ; social economic pressures
原文：But Salikoko Mufwene, who chairs the Linguistics department at theUniversity of Chicago, argues that the deadliest weapon is not governmentpolicy but economic globalization.
同义替换：contributing to = the deadliest weapon
3. One factor whichmay help to ensure that some endangered languages do not die out completely ispeople's increasing appreciation of their 3______
答案: cultural identity
原文：But a growing interest in cultural identity may prevent the direstpredictions from coming true
同义替换：increasing appreciation = growing interest ;; ensure…. do not = prevent…. from
4. This has beenencouraged through programs of language classes for children and through'apprentice' schemes, in which the endangered language is used as the medium ofinstruction to teach people a 4_______
答案: traditional skill
原文：Volunteer 'apprentices' pair up with one of the last living speakers ofa Native American tongue to learn a traditional skill such as basket weaving, withinstruction exclusively in the endangered language.
22. Volcaniceruptions have shaped the earth's land surface. They may also have produced theworld's atmosphere and 22______
答案: water/ the water / oceans / theoceans
原文：Volcanoes have not only made the continents, they are also thought tohave made the world's first stable atmosphere and provided all the water forthe oceans, rivers and ice-caps.
同义替换：shaped the earth's land surface = made thecontinents
23. There aredifferent types of eruption. Sometimes the 23______moves slowly and formsoutcrops of granite on the earth's surface.
答案:lava / magma / molten rock
原文：Sometimes it is slow: vast bubbles of magma — molten rock from themantle — inch towards the surface….
24. When it moves more quickly it may flowout in thick horizontal sheets. Examples of this type of eruption can be foundin Northern Ireland, Wales, South Africa and 24______
答案: India / western India
原文：Sometimes — as in Northern Ireland, Wales and the Karoo in South Africa— the magma rose faster, and then flowed out horizontally on to the surface invast thick sheets. In the Deccan Plateau in western India,…..
同义替换：in thick horizontal sheets = horizontally onto the surface in vast thick
25. A third type oferuption occurs when the lava emerges very quickly and 25______ violently
原文：Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. It does not have lime tocool as it surges upwards. The gases trapped inside the boiling rock expandsuddenly, the lava glows with heat, it begins to froth, and it exploded withtremendous force.
同义替换：lava = magma ; emerges very quickly = movesvery swiftly ; violently = with tremendous force
26. This happens because the magma moves sosuddenly that 26_______emitted.
答案: gases / the gases / trapped gases
原文：Sometimes the magma moves very swiftly indeed. It does not have lime tocool as it surges upwards. The gases trapped inside the boiling rock expandsuddenly,...
同义替换：suddenly = swiftly ; emitted = expand
37. A linguist canuse a corpus to comment objectively on 37_______
答案: frequency of usage / usagefrequency
原文：A corpus enables the linguists to make unbiased statements aboutfrequency of usage,...
同义替换：use = enables ; comment = make statementsabout ; objectively = unbiased
38. Some corporainclude a wide range of language while others are used to focus on a 38______
答案: particular linguistic feature
原文：Some corpora attempt to cover the language as a whole, taking extractsfrom many kinds of text; others are extremely selective, providing a collectionof material that deals only with a particular linguistic feature.
同义替换：include = cover ; a wide range of language =the language as a whole ; focus on = deals with
39. The length oftime the process takes will affect the 39______of the corpus.
原文：The size of the corpus depends on practical factors, such as the timeavailable to collect, process and store the data.
同义替换：The length of time the process takes = thetime available to ….. ; affect = depends on
40. No corpus canever cover the whole language and so linguists often find themselves relying onthe additional information that can be gained from the 40_____of those whospeak the language concerned.
原文：An important principle is that all corpora, whatever their size, areinevitably limited in their coverage, and always need to be supplemented bydata derived from the intuitions of native speakers of the language, througheither introspection or experimentation.
同义替换：No corpus can = all corpora…are inevitablylimited ; cover = in their coverage ; relying on = need to be supplemented by ;information = data ; gained from = derived from ; those who speak the language= native speakers
24. Much of the workof archaeologists can be done using written records but they find 24_____equallyvaluable.
答案: oral histories
原文：To archaeology, which studies all cultures and periods, whether with orwithout writing, the distinction between history and pre-history is aconvenient dividing line that recognizes the importance of the written word,but in no way lessens the importance of the useful information contained inoral histories.
同义替换：written records = written word ; equally = inno way lessens ; valuable = importance
25&26. The writer describes archaeologyas both a 25____and a 26_____
答案: humanistic study ; historicaldiscipline
原文：Since the aim of archaeology is theunderstanding of humankind, it is a humanistic study, and since it deals withthe human past, it is a historical discipline.
27. However, as archaeologists donot try to influence human behavior, the writer compares their style of workingto that of a 27______
原文：In this respect, the practice of the archaeologist is rather like thatof the scientist, who collects data, conducts experiments, formulates ahypothesis, tests the hypothesis against more data, and then, in conclusion,devises a model that seems best to summarize the pattern observed in the data.
同义替换：compares…to = rather like