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雅思写作经典错误与分析

中国雅思网 发表时间:2004年5月21日

  一. 不一致(disagreements)
  所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致,它还包括了数的不一致 时态不一致及代词不一 致等.
  例1. when one have money ,he can do what he want to .
  (人一旦有了钱,他就能想干什么就干什么.)
  剖析:one是单数第三人称,因而本句的have应改为has ;同理,want应改为wants.本句是典型的主谓不一致.
  改为: once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)

  二. 修饰语错位(misplaced modifiers)
  英语与汉语不同,同一个修饰语置于句子不同的位置,句子的含义可能引起变化.对于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视,因而造成了不必要的误解.例1. i believe i can do it well and i will better know the world outside the campus.
  剖析:better位置不当,应置于句末.

  三. 句子不完整(sentence fragments)
  在口语中,交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等,不完整的句子完全可以被理解.可是书面语就不同了,句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清,这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后,笔者又想加些补充说明时发生.
  例1. there are many ways to know the society. for example by tv ,radio ,newspaper and so on .
  剖析:本句后半部分"for example by tv ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句子,仅为一些不连贯的词语,不能独立成句.
  改为:there are many ways to know society ,for example ,by tv ,radio ,and newspaper.

  四. 悬垂修饰语(dangling modifiers)
  所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清.例如:at the age of ten, my grandfather died. 这句中"at the age of ten"只点出十岁时,但没有说明” 谁”十岁时.按一般推理不可能是my grandfather, 如果我们把这个悬垂修饰语改明确一点,全句就不那么费解了.
  改为:
  when i was ten, my grandfather died.
  例1. to do well in college, good grades are essential.
  剖析:句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚.
  改为:
  to do well in college, a student needs good grades.

  五. 词性误用(misuse of parts of speech)
  “词性误用”常表现为:介词当动词用;形容词当副词用;名词当动词用等.
  例1. none can negative the importance of money.
  剖析:negative 系形容词,误作动词。
  改为:
  none can deny the importance of money.

  六. 指代不清(ambiguous reference of pronouns)
  指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清,或者先后所用的代词不一致。试看下面这一句:
  mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid.
  (玛丽和我姐姐很要好,因为她要她做她的伴娘。)
  读完上面这一句话,读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚,谁将当伴娘。如果我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确,意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为:
  mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid.
  例1. and we can also know the society by serving it yourself.
  剖析:句中人称代词we 和反身代词yourself指代不一致。改为:
  we can also know society by serving it ourselves.

  七. 不间断句子(run-on sentences)
  什么叫run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。
  例1. there are many ways we get to know the outside world.
  剖析:这个句子包含了两层完整的意思:“there are many ways.” 以及“we get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。
  改为:
  there are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或:
  there are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside
  world

  八. 措词毛病(troubles in diction)
  diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题,囿于教学时间紧迫,教师平时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限,影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲,斟酌的习惯。他们往往随心所欲,拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。
  例1. the increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution.
  (农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。)
  剖析:显然,考生把obstacles“障碍”,“障碍物”误作substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。
  改为:
  the abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution.

  九. 累赘(redundancy)
  言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词;写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用单词的不用词组;能用词组的不用从句或句子。如:
  in spite of the fact that he is lazy, i like him.
  本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句,我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句”可以改为:in spite of his laziness, i like him.
  例1. for the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need.
  剖析:整个句子可以大大简化。
  改为:
  diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need.

  十. 不连贯(incoherence)
  不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语,或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。
  例1. the fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth.
  剖析:the fresh water 与逗号后的it 不连贯。it 与things 在数方面不一致。
  改为:
  fresh water is the most important thing in the world.

  十一. 综合性语言错误(comprehensive misusage)
  所谓“综合性语言错误”,是指除了上述十种错误以外,还有诸如时态,语态,标点符号,大小写等方面的错误。
  例1.today, money to everybody is very importance, our’s eat, cloth, live, go etc.